Rebecca .O. Enyikwola, Bitrus Musa, & Agnes Ekwo
Department of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Education,
University of Jos, P.M.B 2084, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
Department of Physical and Health Education,
College of Education Oju,
Benue State, Nigeria.
This paper researched “an appraisal of physical fitness status of the University of Jos security personnel; implication for security health enhancement. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical fitness status of security personnel in University of Jos. To measure the physical fitness status of security personnel, then to improve the security personnel’s fitness level by introducing physical fitness conditioning programmes continuously in the University. These exercises develops their agility levels, promptness, muscular flexibility as well as muscular strength and endurance. The total population of the study was four hundred (400) security personnel’s in the University and the whole population was used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was researcher designed questionnaire with 37 security personnel safety health enhancement items. The validity of the instrument was determined by (5) five health experts. The validity was done through test-re-test method in a pilot study. The data was collected by the researchers and four (4) research assistants. The information gathered was analyzed using frequency counts. Based on the results of data analysis and discussions, it could be concluded as follows: The security personnel possess physical fitness through physical exercise, 296(70%) of the security guard’s indicated lack of chest pain after work, 176 (35%) of them hardly experience muscular cramp/pull when they ran some distance, 216 (54%) of the security personnel did not experience waist pain, however they do not significantly possess strength and endurance. It was recommended thus: The security guards should be graded and given uniforms which is in conformity with the military culture and designations, security guards of the university should be encouraged to take courses designed by physical and health education department where their mental, physical and personal health would be monitored through direct academic and practical classes.
Keywords: Appraisal, Physical Fitness, University Security Guards
Security guards scheduled progarmmes are to protect lives and properties from catastrophes, sabotage and trespasses like theft, accidental or willful damage and destruction. They wear uniforms, display badges of authority and may carry weapons. In some organizations, military training is included in the daily routine of security guards. And such guards make use of military ranks i.e. sergeant, lieutenant etc. designed by the organization logo. The duties of security guards includes; apprehension and detention of violators of institutional laws, rules and regulations and turn them over to the public law enforcement agents for proper prosecution (Williams 2005). Security guards are saddled with other law enforcement responsibilities like: (1) guarding a fixed posts or patrol assigned either on foot or by vehicle (2) enforce pertinent administrative rules and regulations governing buildings, traffic control and parking spaces (3) guarding other public or institutional facility access and breaches in physical security controls (4) saddled with the scheduled duty to locks, fences, gates or other barricades.
When enforcing rules and regulations guard control the movement of persons and protect lives and personal property in and around the federal property being protected. Furthermore, Darki 2010 stated that the nature of training and how security men discharge their duties is such that influences physical fitness. The security men are recognized as active individuals, physical fitness is recognized as a global concern since upon it, individual, national and international aspirations are fulfilled. It is the goalistic concern of everybody in whatever field of life. Physical fitness involves the ability to physically handle all aspect of a demanding mission, while remaining healthy and uninjured. This type of training not only improves the performance on the job, it improves psychological wellness. Exercise has been shown to help the body handle stress better, and physically active people may have lower rates of anxiety and depression than generally inactive people.
Physical activity can:
- Improve mood
- Help keep your thinking, learning and judgement skills sharp as you age iii. Reduce symptoms or risk of depression and protect psychological health
- Help you get better quality of sleep so you feel awake and refreshed throughout the day. v. Physical activity helps your body and overall health in many other ways such as:
- Controlling your weight
vii. Reducing your risk of heart disease
viii. Reduce your risk for type 2 disease and metabolic syndrome ix. Reducing your risk of some cancers
- x. Strengthening your bones, muscles and joints and increasing your chances of living
longer (MAJ Tonja & Ray, 2010)
In the same vein, the physical fitness components that are probably necessary for security guards includes both health and skill (physical) related components such as, cord respiratory endurance, Muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, speed, agility, power and optimal body composition. To pursue a suspect or run to assist a victim, by an officer requires adequate cardiovascular and respiratory fitness. Klinzing 1980, reported that law enforcement personnel have a higher than expected incidence of heart disease resulting to mortality. This is not far from lack of cardiovascular and respiratory fitness. Body composition is an important factor of physical fitness, because it affects other components such as speed, agility, endurance and cord respiratory endurance. Excess of fat is related to performance and longevity and increase incidence of heart disease and other associated diseases (Musa, 1997, Musa, Ibrahim and Tariola, 2002).
William (2005) further still, stated that in military organization initial basic training is intended to give army recruits both the necessary skills and physical fitness required for their future careers. High aerobic fitness (oxygen exercise) muscle strength, low percentage fat are desirable physical fitness characters for army (solders) as these characteristics has been related to performance ability to common military task such as marching and long distance patrol. Accordingly, basic training for regular male soldiers has generally been shown to produce significant increase in maximal oxygen uptake. Both physical fitness and total amount of exercise lesson and/or totally eradicate risk of musculoskeletal injuries.
Also people who are physically fit have a lower risk of injury than those who are not, and people who do large amounts of activities generally have higher risk of injury than people who do less. So it appears that healthy adults who meet the present moderate intensity activities have an overall reduced musculoskeletal injury rate that is significantly different from an in active or sedentary life. while performing physical activities, people should: Understand the risk and yet be confident that physical activities are safe for almost everyone; Choose to do types of physical activities that are appropriate for their current fitness; • Increase physical activities gradually overtime, whenever more activities are necessary to meet set health goals (inactive people should start low and gradually increasing the frequency and duration of exercising); Protect themselves by putting on protective gears, such as appropriate sports equipment, looking for safe environment, following rules and instructions and making sensible choices about when, where how to be active e.g. considering weather condition and air quality; and Be under the care of health care providers if they have chronic medical conditions or symptoms, they should also seek professional advice from physical instructors or experts in sports medicine when embarking on new forms or resistance activity that requires specific skills or are associated with a higher risk injury.
From the foregoing therefore, physical training is the ability to endure, bear, withstand stress, where an unfit person cannot continue and is a major for good health and well-being. Exercise is a stressful conditions which produces a marked change in body function, and are no exception Pelkonen, Morkola, Lokka, Tukigmen, Kivinen and Missinen (2003) stated that a continued high physical activity is associated with lower mortality and delays decline in the pulmonary functions and therefore should be encourage.
Security personnel employed by government agencies are often called upon to provide support during hazardous emergencies, and emergency planning in preparation for such incidents is key to successful implementation of response operations. The role they are assigned by their employer is also important in determining the training, information and personal protective equipment they must be provided with to safely perform their duties (Kamla-Raj 2010).
- The security personnel of University of Jos does not obtain physical fitness through physical activities.
- The security personnel in University of Jos does not obtain average score in training schedule for fitness.
- The security personnel of University of Jos does not obtain an average score in cardio respiratory endurance.
- The security personnel of University of Jos does not obtain an average score in muscular strength and endurance.
- The security personnel of University of Jos does not obtain an average score in body composition
- The security personnel of University of Jos does not obtain an average score in leg power.
- The security personnel of University of Jos does not obtain an average score in muscular flexibility.
Statement of the problem
Guards do not have specific physical training to conform with the state’s security service. Guards are not trained every morning to properly take on each days assignment. Guards are not ranked to conform with the experience and expertise. It has been observed that standardized physical training has not been infused into the security unit in University of Jos and this has affected their physical fitness status.
Purpose of the Study
This study was undertaken to:
- Determine the physical fitness status of security personnel in University of Jos.
- Measure the physical fitness status of security personnel in University of Jos.
- Improve the security personnel’s fitness level by introducing physical fitness conditioning programmes continuously in University of Jos.
- Create awareness on the need for physical fitness programmes for security personnel in Nigeria Universities.
- See if the University of Jos can provide uniforms for the security guards.
- Find out if security guards can be graded in University of Jos.
Materials and method
This paper researched “an appraisal of the physical fitness status of the University of Jos security personnel; implication for security health enhancement. The descriptive survey method was used. The total population of the study was four hundred (400) security personnel in the University and the whole population was used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was researcher Likert designed questionnaire with 37 security personnel safety health enhancement items. The questionnaire was divided into nine (9) sections. The validity of the instrument was determined by (5) five health experts. These experts read through and ascertained the comprehensiveness of the questionnaire covering the area of study. The validity was done through test-re-test method in a pilot study. The data collected was by the researcher and four (4) research assistants. The information gathered was analyzed using frequency counts.